From Techdirt.com: “Court Tells Omega Copyright Is Not A Sword; Rejects Attempt To Control Grey Market As Copyright Misuse”
Fascinating article about how watchmaker Omega has tried to control gray market sales of its watches by putting an engraving on the backs of its watches and then claiming copyright infringement when those watches are resold by CostCo. Read the article here.
By Nickolas Solish
[Originally published in the Los Angeles Daily Journal on November 11, 2011. Reposted here with permission. All rights reserved.]
When a story is written by a crowd, who owns the rights to it? That is the question with “Rome Sweet Rome,” a new screenplay penned by James Erwin on social media site Reddit.com. The story was inspired by an idea from one user, written into a short story by Erwin, and had music, mock movie posters and other graphics contributed by others. Last month, Warner Bros. purchased the rights to the screenplay from Erwin, but the question remains: who, if anybody, owns the rights to “Rome Sweet Rome”?
The idea for the movie came from a question posted by user “The_Quiet_Earth” on Reddit’s message boards: “Could I destroy the entire Roman Empire during the reign of Augustus if I traveled back in time with a modern U.S. Marine infantry battalion or MEU [Marine Expeditionary Unit]?”
Prufrock_451 (James Erwin) responded to the question in story form, describing the MEU’s first day in ancient Rome. Erwin’s subsequent entries followed the time-traveling marines through eight days of adventures and inspired a dedicated Reddit community called “Rome Sweet Rome.” Other users contributed fan made art, mock movie posters, and even contributions for a “Rome Sweet Rome” soundtrack.
After a short time, Adam Kolbrenner of Madhouse Entertainment approached Erwin about writing a screenplay. A contact of Kolbrenner’s at Warner Bros. liked the idea and the studio purchased rights to a movie version of Erwin’s story.
This simple scenario was complicated by Reddit’s user agreement, which states in part:
“you agree that by posting messages, uploading files, inputting data, or engaging in any other form of communication with or through the Website, you grant us a royalty-free, perpetual, non-exclusive, unrestricted, worldwide license to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, translate, enhance, transmit, distribute, publicly perform, display, or sublicense any such communication in any medium (now in existence or hereinafter developed) and for any purpose, including commercial purposes, and to authorize others to do so.”
Effectively, this appears to give Reddit and its parent Condé Nast the ability to transform or adapt Erwin’s story for any purpose, including commercial purposes. The Hollywood Reporter rightly mused that Erwin could probably write a full script and copyright that.
Though Reddit might have the right to take Erwin’s underlying idea and develop it into a separate script and sell it to a rival studio, this is unlikely. For one, sites like Reddit are largely dependent on user submitted content to attract visitors. Reddit is unlikely to risk endangering the 1.8 billion monthly page views it received in October by commercializing user content without that user’s permission. The vibrant Reddit community is largely supported by the goodwill its users.
On the other hand, Condé Nast has had trouble monetizing Reddit and may see “Rome Sweet Rome” as a business opportunity. A major movie concept from comments wholly owned by Reddit may be worth the fight for Condé Nast, though they have yet to make any legal moves towards challenging the sale to Warner Bros. Yet if Reddit moderator hueypriest’s recent comment that it would be “completely against our interests to sabotage something awesome created by a Redditor” is any indication, Reddit is unlikely to act in the near future.
Besides the issue of Reddit’s licensing rights are questions of the multi-author, crowdsourced nature of “Rome Sweet Rome.” The_Quiet_One was not compensated for coming up with the idea for the movie, though the original concept was his idea. Also uncompensated were the users who contributed mock-ups for movie posters, movie music and logos. Are these users also entitled to compensation by Warner Bros?
Under the copyright code, a “collective work” is “a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology, or encyclopedia, in which a number of contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole.” 17 U.S.C. Section 101. “Rome Sweet Rome” does not appear to fit into this category, as it is a single story, not a collection of separate and distinct short stories or articles.
Interestingly, a work is created under the copyright code when it is “fixed in a copy or phonorecord for the first time.” 17 17 U.S.C. Section 101. Subsequently, a “derivate work” is defined as one that is “based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted.”
From these definitions one could speculate that The_Quiet_One “created” the concept for “Rome Sweet Rome” when he posted the question about an MEU in ancient Rome to Reddit. Because Erwin’s story was based upon this preexisting idea, “Rome Sweet Rome” is arguably a derivative work.
The question of who owns the movie is intriguing because it’s largely new territory under the copyright code and intellectual property laws. Never before has an Internet comment turned into a screenplay, let alone be purchased by a large studio. The answer to who owns the story will shape the future of copyright protection for crowdsourced works and may make sites like Reddit weigh user opinion against future mon
By Nick Solish
Imagine using the Internet to listen to any song you wanted to for free. Now imagine putting those songs into playlists, sharing them with friends, and listening to them from your mobile phone. This is the concept behind Grooveshark.com, listed in Time Magazine’s “Best Websites of 2010,” a Web site where users can upload music and listen to other users’ musical uploads.
Recently, Google.com removed Grooveshark’s application from the Android mobile store for violating Google’s terms of service. Google did not mention any specific violation, but has recently courted record labels and copyright holders in anticipation of Google’s new music downloading service. There was also speculation that record companies pressured Google to remove the application or face legal action. Apple Inc. similarly removed its iPhone Grooveshark application in August, 2010 after receiving a complaint from Universal Music Group, who is currently in litigation against Grooveshark.
In response to Google’s recent action, Grooveshark’s Senior Vice President of Information Products, Paul Geller, wrote an open letter claiming their operation is entirely legal. Geller cites Grooveshark’s FAQ page, which states they will honor “take down claims” that fully comply with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) terms and will remove infringing content. Compliance with DMCA “take down claims,” argues Grooveshark, brings them under the same protection as Youtube.com, who is only required to take down offending videos if a proper “take down claim” is filed and deemed legitimate.
Geller also noted that Grooveshark has secured licenses with thousands of artists and is working to secure licenses with others. Grooveshark claims to pay copyright holders for sound recordings played through its service. Furthermore, it has taken down almost two million infringing files and suspended over 20,000 user accounts for copyright infringement. A 2009 suit with EMI Music, one of the big four record companies, was dropped in favor of a licensing deal; Grooveshark hopes more record companies will follow.
However, it is unclear that compliance with the DMCA is sufficient to make Grooveshark’s operations entirely legal. Whether its operation is protected by the copyright code may hinge on whether Grooveshark is deemed an interactive service as defined in 17 U.S.C. Section 114(j)(7). In Arista Records LLC v. LAUNCH Media Inc., 578 F.3d 148 (2d Cir. N.Y. 2009), a consortium of groups led by BMG, the third largest group of record labels, sued Yahoo’s interactive radio service, LaunchCast, under the DMCA. The DMCA requires an interactive service to pay licensing fees to content owners, whereas a non-interactive service merely has to pay a smaller statutory licensing fee.
The appellate court in Arista Records discussed the definition of an interactive service under the DMCA as a service “enabl[ing] a member of the public to receive a transmission of a program specially created for the recipient, or on request, a transmission of a particular sound recording, whether or not as part of a program, which is selected by or on behalf of the recipient.” The phrase “specially created” is ambiguous and the court examined Congress’ intent in enacting the 1972 Copyright Act to determine what “specifically created” meant, finding the intent behind the protection of sound recordings was to prevent piracy. Radio stations were exempted as radio broadcasting was considered free advertising for record companies.
In response to the growth of Internet radio, Congress enacted the Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings Act (DPSR) in 1995. This gave copyright holders of sound recordings an exclusive, but narrow, right to perform or play sound recordings via digital audio transmission. This right only extended to performances through paid subscription services and “interactive services.” These service providers were required to obtain licenses for each sound recording performed, while non-interactive services qualified for the much lower statutory licensing fees set by the Copyright Royalty Board. The law was partly enacted because it was believed that interactive services would be a greater detriment to record sales than non-interactive services, which more closely mirrored traditional radio.
The Copyright Act defines a service as interactive if it is either specially created for the user or if a user can use the service to find and play a specific song. The 2nd Circuit determined the LAUNCHcast service would be interactive if a user could request and play a particular sound recording or have a program specially created on request. LAUNCHcast does not do this, rather, it bases song recommendations on genres a user enjoys and on a song rating scale. Consequently, the 2nd Circuit deemed it as non-interactive and thus, not responsible for individually licensing performed sound recordings. Applying this criteria, Grooveshark seems to be an interactive service under the DPSR and the 1972 Copyright Act. It allows users to play specific sound recordings at their request, meeting the 2nd Circuit’s criteria for an interactive service. Thus, despite Grooveshark’s compliance with take down notices, it is unclear how this will shield them from liability under the DPSR interactive services provision.
In January 2010, UMG brought suit against Grooveshark in New York state court. UMG’s suit is unusual because it was not filed in federal court and only pursued violations against pre-1972 recordings. Filing specifically for these violations allows UMG to recover under both federal and state law, whereas post 1972 recordings would only be recoverable under federal law. A New York case, Capitol Records Inc. v. Naxos of America Inc., 262 F.Supp.2d 204 (2003), held that pre-1972 recordings are protected under state copyright law because 17 U.S.C. Section 301(c) allows recovery for these recordings under state common law or state statutes until Feb. 15, 2067. Grooveshark faces an uphill battle both because it is dealing with unfamiliar state common law remedies, and because it is located in Florida.
UMG does not specifically allege that Grooveshark is an interactive service and therefore owes compulsory licensing fees under the DPSR. However, UMG does allege that users access protected content on Grooveshark through a search, and when a file is played, Grooveshark’s Web site creates a copy of that sound recording on the user’s computer, which then plays for the user via streaming. Furthermore, UMG discusses Grooveshark’s VIP service where users are charged a monthly fee but can store music on their phones, like an mp3 player. These allegations form the basis for its copyright infringement claim, based on illegal distribution and copying of protected content.
UMG is using the Naxos decision to seek additional remedies that may be prohibited under the 1972 Copyright Act. The Naxos court noted that “‘where a product is placed upon the market, under…statement that the substitute or imitating product is a duplicate of the original, and where the commercial value of the imitation lies in the fact that it takes advantage of and appropriates to itself the commercial qualities, reputation, and salable properties of the original, equity should grant relief.’” Escape Media Group (EMG), Grooveshark’s parent company and defendant in UMG’s suit, mostly denied the allegations of the complaint in their answer without further explanation. However, EMG specifically denied that any of the features of Grooveshark’s VIP service were designed to enhance infringement and distribute any sound recordings to users.
It remains to be seen whether Naxos will be interpreted to allow common law or state statutory remedies against Grooveshark. Its files do seem to imitate real mp3s by acting as duplicates of songs users must otherwise purchase, which makes the service commercially valuable. Grooveshark may argue they are equivalent to an Internet radio service, but giving users control over songs played distinguishes it from traditional radio, or even Internet radio companies.
While it is unclear whether UMG will succeed in its suit, it does seem like Grooveshark will be swimming upstream.
*Originally published in the Los Angeles Daily Journal on May 2, 2011. Reprinted with permission.